Cluster Munitions

A cluster bomb, or cluster munition, is a weapon containing multiple explosive submuni­tions. When the canister opens these small bombs are spread over a wide area. Many fail to explode on impact, and remain a lethal danger to anyone coming near.

They are an inher­ently inac­curate and unpre­dict­able legacy weapon which endangers civilians for decades and deprive families and communities of productive land.

The Convention on Cluster Munitions opened for signature in Oslo in 2008 and entered into force in August 2010. The Convention has 100 State Parties and 19 signatures, for a total of 119 countries joining the treaty. Australia has now ratified the Convention, although gaps regarding investment in companies that produce cluster munitions still remain in our domestic legislation.

SafeGround’s research and advocacy actively contributes to the universalisation of the Convention on Cluster Munitions, and we continue to monitor treaty status around the world.

Convention on Cluster Munitions

The following states are parties to the Convention on Cluster Munitions:

State Party Signed Ratified or acceded Entered into force
 Afghanistan 3 December 2008 9 September 2011 1 March 2012
 Albania 3 December 2008 16 June 2009 1 August 2010
 Andorra 9 April 2013 1 October 2013
 Antigua and Barbuda 16 July 2010 23 August 2010 1 February 2011
 Australia 3 December 2008 8 October 2012 1 April 2013
 Austria 3 December 2008 2 April 2009 1 August 2010
 Belgium 3 December 2008 22 December 2009 1 August 2010
 Belize 2 September 2014 2 September 2014
 Bolivia 3 December 2008 30 April 2013 1 October 2013
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 3 December 2008 7 September 2010 1 March 2011
 Botswana 3 December 2008 27 June 2011 1 December 2011
 Bulgaria 3 December 2008 6 April 2011 1 October 2011
 Burkina Faso 3 December 2008 16 February 2010 1 August 2010
 Burundi 3 December 2008 25 September 2009 1 August 2010
 Cabo Verde 3 December 2008 19 October 2010 1 April 2011
 Cameroon 15 December 2009 12 July 2012 1 January 2013
 Canada 3 December 2008 16 March 2015 1 September 2015
 Chad 3 December 2008 26 March 2013 1 September 2013
 Chile 3 December 2008 16 December 2010 1 June 2011
 Colombia 3 December 2008 10 September 2015 1 March 2016
 Comoros 3 December 2008 28 July 2010 1 January 2011
 Cook Islands 3 December 2008 23 August 2011 1 February 2012
 Costa Rica 3 December 2008 28 April 2011 1 October 2011
 Croatia 3 December 2008 17 August 2009 1 August 2010
 Cuba 6 April 2016 1 October 2016
 Czech Republic 3 December 2008 22 September 2011 1 March 2012
 Côte d’Ivoire 4 December 2008 12 March 2012 1 September 2012
 Denmark 3 December 2008 2 February 2010 1 August 2010
 Dominican Republic 10 November 2009 20 December 2011 1 June 2012
 Ecuador 3 December 2008 11 May 2010 1 November 2010
 El Salvador 3 December 2008 10 January 2011 1 July 2011
 Fiji 3 December 2008 28 May 2010 1 November 2010
 France 3 December 2008 25 September 2009 1 August 2010
 Germany 3 December 2008 8 July 2009 1 August 2010
 Ghana 3 December 2008 3 February 2011 1 August 2011
 Grenada 29 June 2011 1 December 2011
 Guatemala 3 December 2008 3 November 2010 1 May 2011
 Guinea 3 December 2008 21 October 2014 1 April 2015
 Guinea-Bissau 4 December 2008 29 November 2010 1 May 2011
 Guyana 31 October 2014 1 April 2015
 Holy See 3 December 2008 3 December 2008 1 August 2010
 Honduras 3 December 2008 21 March 2012 1 September 2012
 Hungary 3 December 2008 3 July 2012 1 January 2013
 Iceland 12 November 2009 31 August 2015 1 February 2016
 Iraq 12 November 2009 14 May 2013 1 November 2013
 Ireland 3 December 2008 3 December 2008 1 August 2010
 Italy 3 December 2008 21 September 2011 1 March 2012
 Japan 3 December 2008 14 July 2009 1 August 2010
 Laos 3 December 2008 18 March 2009 1 August 2010
 Lebanon 3 December 2008 5 November 2010 1 May 2011
 Lesotho 3 December 2008 28 May 2010 1 November 2010
 Liechtenstein 3 December 2008 4 March 2013 1 September 2013
 Lithuania 3 December 2008 24 March 2011 24 March 2011
 Luxembourg 3 December 2008 10 July 2009 1 August 2010
 Macedonia 3 December 2008 8 October 2009 1 August 2010
 Malawi 3 December 2008 7 October 2009 1 August 2010
 Mali 3 December 2008 30 January 2010 1 August 2010
 Malta 3 December 2008 24 September 2009 1 August 2010
 Mauritania 19 April 2010 1 February 2012 1 August 2012
 Mauritius 1 October 2015 1 April 2016
 Mexico 3 December 2008 6 May 2009 1 August 2010
 Moldova 3 December 2008 16 February 2010 1 August 2010
 Monaco 3 December 2008 21 September 2010 1 March 2011
 Montenegro 3 December 2008 25 January 2010 1 August 2010
 Mozambique 3 December 2008 14 March 2011 1 September 2011
 Nauru 3 December 2008 4 February 2013 1 August 2013
 Netherlands 3 December 2008 23 February 2011 1 August 2011
 New Zealand 3 December 2008 22 December 2009 1 August 2010
 Nicaragua 3 December 2008 2 November 2009 1 August 2010
 Niger 3 December 2008 2 June 2009 1 August 2010
 Norway 3 December 2008 3 December 2008 3 December 2008
 Panama 3 December 2008 29 November 2010 1 May 2011
 Paraguay 3 December 2008 12 March 2015 1 September 2015
 Peru 3 December 2008 26 September 2012 1 March 2013
 Portugal 3 December 2008 9 March 2011 1 September 2011
 Republic of the Congo 3 December 2008 2 September 2014 1 March 2015
 Rwanda 3 December 2008 25 August 2015 1 February 2016
 Saint Kitts and Nevis 13 September 2013 1 March 2014
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 23 September 2009 29 October 2010 1 April 2011
 Samoa 3 December 2008 28 April 2010 1 October 2010
 San Marino 3 December 2008 10 July 2009 1 August 2010
 Senegal 3 December 2008 3 August 2011 1 February 2012
 Seychelles 13 April 2010 20 May 2010 1 November 2010
 Sierra Leone 3 December 2008 3 December 2008 1 August 2010
 Slovakia 24 July 2015 1 January 2016
 Slovenia 3 December 2008 19 August 2009 1 August 2010
 Somalia 3 December 2008 30 September 2015 1 March 2016
 South Africa 3 December 2008 28 May 2015 1 November 2015
 Spain 3 December 2008 17 June 2009 1 August 2010
 State of Palestine 2 January 2015 1 July 2015
 Swaziland 16 September 2011 1 March 2012
 Sweden 3 December 2008 23 April 2012 1 October 2012
  Switzerland 3 December 2008 17 July 2012 17 July 2012
 Togo 3 December 2008 22 June 2012 1 December 2012
 Trinidad and Tobago 21 September 2011 1 March 2012
 Tunisia 12 January 2009 28 September 2010 1 March 2011
 United Kingdom 3 December 2008 4 May 2010 1 November 2010
 Uruguay 3 December 2008 24 September 2009 1 August 2010
 Zambia 3 December 2008 12 August 2009 1 August 2010

Find out more at the United Nations Treaty Collection